• Native tribe of western Maine and Quebec. One member of the Wabanaki Confederation.

  • One who performs all regular and emergency duties required in the deck department of a merchant ship. The rating was made legal and the requirements standardized in Britain in 1894 and in the U.S. in 1915. See also "ordinary seaman."

  • The body of water separating the Apennine Peninsula of Italy from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • A long-handled cutting tool, with a blade at right angles to the shaft. Originally a shipbuilding tool.

  • Aft

    Towards the stern, or rear, of a vessel.

  • Illness characterized by chills and fever, sometimes associated with malaria.

  • Aids to navigation are artificial aids that have been created or built to aid the navigator. Buoys and lighthouses are examples.

  • Albertross

    A large, web-footed sea bird with long, slender wings for gliding. The albatross is among the largest sea birds.

  • Anadromous fish of the herring family about 12 inches long. Fished commercially in the spring when they run upriver to spawn. Catch is now a third of what it was in the 1970s. Offshore they are caught by midwater trawlers. Once smoked and pickled, now mostly used as lobster bait.

  • Used in lightweight ship and boat construction. Began to be used in America's Cup yachts like Defender of 1895, which was crewed by fishermen from Deer Island.

  • A sailing race held around the Isle of Wight in England in 1851 for "The Hundred Guineas Cup" was won by the schooner yacht America. The Cup winners renamed it "The Americas Cup" and established it as a perpetual international yacht race series, the oldest formal international competition in sport. It is still an intensely competitive series of races between one defending yacht and one challenging yacht from another country.

  • Christopher Columbus mistakenly believed that the Caribbean island on which he had landed was the subcontinent of India, so he called the inhabitants Indians. Eventually, that name was applied to almost all the indigenous, non-European inhabitants of North and South America.

  • Established in New York City in 1826. "To improve the social and moral condition of seamen, by uniting the efforts of the wise and good in their behalf; by promoting in every port boarding houses of good character, savings banks, register offices, libraries, museums, reading rooms and schools; and also the ministrations of the gospel, and other religious blessings." In 1857 began the loan library program seriously and by 1930 had sent out over 30,000 libraries for use on shipboard. The society was dissolved in 1986.

  • Fish that seasonally leave the sea to swim up-river to spawn in fresh water; examples include alewives, smelts, shad, salmon, striped bass, bluebacks, and sturgeon.

  • A small archipelago in the South China Sea. Part of Indonesia.

  • A device for mooring a floating object to the sea bottom.

  • Andersonville Prison
    In 1864, Andersonville Prison was opened in Georgia. In just one year it contained more than 49,000 Union soldiers. Andersonville was an open stockade, with tents inside for the prisoners, and was known for terrible conditions and a high death rate. Today it is the site of the National Prisoner of War Museum.
  • Of or characteristic of the Church of England or any of the churches relatd to it, such as the Episcopal Church.

  • Anger
    Correct spelling is Anjer: a town on the west coast of Java
  • A city in Belgium.
  • An old-fashioned word for stroke.
  • fish farming, farm-raised

    Growing fish or shellfish in a controlled environment at sea or in tanks or lagoons on land. Fish grown in such an environment are said to be farm-raised.

  • Benedict Arnold

    1741-1801. Arnold was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He is best known for his attempt to surrender the American fort at West Point, NY, to the British, thus splitting the colonies in half. Arnold was opposed to the colonists' alliance with France. He defected to the British Army. Before this his contributions to victory for the Colonies was crucial, with his defense of Lake Champlain against the British in 1776, delaying the British attempt to split the Colonies in half, and laying the ground work for victory the following year in the Battle of Saratoga, in which he was the Colonies' field leader. A prime reason for his defection was the lack of credit he got from the Continental Congress for his major contributions.

  • Shipping Articles

    The short name for "Shipping Articles", the master contract between members of a crew and the owners of the vessel. Required on American merchant vessels from the late 19th century.

  • Hove up a number of worms
    “Hove up a number of worms” probably refers to ascariasis, a human disease in which a large kind of parasitic roundworm (nematode) is present in the intestines. It can be vomited up or passed in stools.
  • Backwards; behind the vessel.

  • John Jacob Astor

    1763-1848. Richest American of his time. He made money first in the fur trade, and he established the town of Astoria, Oregon. He engaged in import and export trade and owned his own shipping lines.

  • The seaman's astrolabe is a graduated ring or disc fitted with a sighting rule pivoted at the center. The instrument was suspended so that it hung vertically. The user then turned the sighting rule so that the sun or star could be sighted along it and the altitude read off the ring. It dates back to ancient Greece and was heavily used in the Islamic world. The first records of a seagoing version date to around 1481.

  • A tool used to bore holes in wood. These holes were usually meant to receive trunnels.