• Solomon Lovell
    General Solomon Lovell was in charge of the American army that attempted to drive the British from Castine in 1779 in the Penobscot Expedition. The expedition failed.
  • bulk cargoes
    Goods, like wheat or cotton, that could be shipped in bulk at low rates per ton.
  • An American who sided with the British during the American Revolution.
  • A style of realistic landscape and seascape painting developed in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century and concerned with the study and depiction of effects of light and atmosphere.
  • Longitude by lunar distances involves using the relationship of the moon with stars as a giant clock. Measuring the Moon's position relative to stars lets time be read. The observation would be the same anyplace on earth at the same time. Thus taking this observation would determine the time at a standard meridian. Comparing it with local time will give the navigator longitude. Noting that the moon moves past the stars faster than the planets, astronomers proposed a way to find longitude by lunar distances in the early 16th century. The invention of the Hadley quadrant in 1731 made these accurate measurements possible at sea. Another requirement was accurate tables to predict where the moon was with respect to nearby stars or the sun at a standard meridian. One of the reasons for creating the Greenwich Observatory was to record the moon's location. There Tobias Mayer and Neville Maskelyne developed useful tables and a method to calculate longitude at sea. The purpose of the tables was to give the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) for small angles between the moon and a few stars every three hours. The navigator, in computing his observed data, found the GMT that matched the observations. That time, then, was compared with the local time, often found with a noon sun sighting, and carried on a watch that did not need long-term accuracy as did a marine chronometer. Every hour of difference between the local time of the sighting and the GMT of the predicted time counted as 15° of longitude. The method generally could not compete with the precision provided by a chronometer, yet was popular in the 19th century before chronometers became relatively inexpensive. But it took a good navigator about four hours to complete the calculations. Happily, those calculations were simplified with a new method provided by America's most famous navigator, Nathaniel Bowditch, in 1802.
  • Theodore Lyman

    Theodore Lyman was born in York, Maine, and worked in the Kennebunk store belonging to Waldo Emerson, father of Ralph Waldo Emerson. He became a merchant in Boston, making a fortune in the West Indies trade, and was among the first to send ships to the Pacific coast for furs. Many of his vessels were built at Kennebunk, in the Bourne shipyard. In 1800 he launched the Atahualpa, named for a Peruvian hero and martyr. Captain William Sturgis was captain of this vessel. On his second voyage Sturgis by-passed the Pacific coast and sailed directly to China, carrying a cargo of 300,000 Mexican silver dollars. While becalmed in Macao Roads, he found sixteen pirate junks waiting and had to hold off the attackers with his few cannon until a breeze returned, and he was able to sail to the Portuguese fort at Macao. During the encounter, Sturgis stood beside a powder keg with a lighted torch, prepared to blow up his ship rather than let it be taken by pirates. On returning to Boston at the end of the trip, Lyman, the vessel's owner, forced Sturgis to pay freight on the cannon he had used to save the ship from the pirates, because Sturgis had taken the cannon on board without orders.