• A combination of lime or gypsum, sand, water, and sometimes hair or other fiber applied in a paste form to walls, ceilings, etc., and allowed to harden.
  • Founded in December 1620 at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts by English Separatist Puritans. See also Plymouth Company.
  • Also called the Virginia Company of Plymouth, English stock company set up in 1606 to establish colonies. Its territory lay north of the London Company. It established the Popham Colony at the mouth of the Kennebec in 1607, but the Popham colonists returned to England in 1608.
  • Operated by air pressure.
  • Highly accurate navigation grade pocket watch.
  • Pollack are the most active members of the cod family. They are deep, plump bodied fish that have three dorsal fins, two anal fins and a forked tail fin, with slightly projected lower jaw. Pollock average between 4 and 15 pounds in weight, although large ones can weigh to 35 pounds. Over fished commericially in the 1980s, they are still caught commercially in smaller numbers and are a hook and line recreational fish. They make strong, powerful runs, thus making them fun to catch on light tackle.
  • Marco Polo
    1254-1324. A Venetian who traveled to China in a journey that lasted 24 years and returned and wrote about it. His was the first major account of a world outside of Europe and opened up trade to China.
  • The first English colony in New England, established at the mouth of the Kennebec River in 1607, called Fort St. George. The colonists returned to England in 1608.
  • George Popham
    c. 1550-1608 . Merchant and ship captain, nephew of Sir John Popham, Lord Chief Justice of England and one of the prime financial backers of the Popham colony. George Popham was in command and president of the Popham Colony; his death in February, 1608 was a major factor in the colonists' decision to abandon Fort St. George.
  • A very white, hard, translucent type of ceramic ware.
  • Fees paid for the use of a port's facilities.
  • Larboard watch
    One of the two watches into which the crew was divided. The port watch was led by the mate. Port and larboard are the seafaring terms for the left side of the vessel, the opposite side from starboard which is where the steering oar was hung on a Norse vessel. On those vessels it was easier to come alongside a pier on the left or port side.
  • The circular opening in the side of a vessel to give light and ventilation to living quarters. Also called side light, sidescuttle, or air port.
  • Italian manuscript sailing directions used in the Mediterranean between the 12th and 15th centuries. They were contemporary with, and served to back up, the portolan charts of the areas, which were hand drawn charts with compass or direction lines.

  • Line used to attach lobster pots or traps to buoys that mark their location.
  • Preble and Jewett, of Portland, Maine, partnered with a Salem, Massachusetts shipbuilder to build the Portland, which cost $60,000 to build and was launched in the spring of 1796. The Portland sailed from Boston to Bombay with a captain from Saco. She carried beef, cod, salmon, oak staves, barrel staves, and sugar for sale in various Mediterranean ports, and wine and other goods were acquired there for trade in the Far East.

  • Winds that blow from west to east between 30 and 60 degrees north and south in both northern and southern hemispheres. These winds helped vessels sail from America to Europe and to sail out to Australia and New Zealand via the Cape of Good Hope. They also made it difficult to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific west around Cape Horn.

  • The winds that normally blow in a region.
  • The meridian from which longitude is measured eastward or westward. The longitude of the prime meridian is 0 degrees. Throughout history, different locations have been designated prime meridian, sometimes each nation using their own choice. In 1884 the meridian of Greenwich, England was recognized as the generally accepted prime meridian.
  • Martin Pring
    c.1580-1646. English explorer, first sent to America in 1603 in a follow-up to Gosnold's voyage in search of sassafras, then thought to be a cure for syphilis. With two vessels, he made landfall in the vicinity of the Penobscot Bay, probably around Matinicus. After exploring Penobscot Bay, he coasted down to outer Cape Cod, probably visiting the mouths of the Saco, Kennebunk and York Rivers, and possibly sailing up the Piscataqua. Finding no sassafras, he sailed for Cape Cod where Gosnold had found sassafras, likely landing at Provincetown. After filling up his ships with sassafras and exploring Massachusetts Bay he returned to Bristol. Pring returned to the New England coast in 1606, surveying it carefully, but these records have been lost. The Popham expedition appears to have had a chart made during the 1606 voyage.
  • A privately-owned vessel armed with guns which operated in time of war against the enemy's merchant ships. Privateers were commissioned by letters of marque, which licensed them to take prizes. Privateering was abolished by the Declaration of Paris in 1856.
  • Those to whom the British king granted exclusive control over a colony. This allowed the king to indirectly control the colony without investing. Sir Ferdinando Gorges became one of the proprietors of the Province of Maine in 1622, splitting it at the Piscataqua River in 1629.
  • A declaration made by the master of a vessel before an official, in cases of damage to the cargo. The protest might be required by insurance underwriters in the event of a claim.
  • Claudius Ptolemy
    c.90-168. Probably born in Egypt of Greek heritage. Mathematician, astronomer and cartographer. With simple projections he created a world map that summarized geographic information of the Greco-Roman world. He created a latitude/longitude system to describe locations. He conceived a world or heliocentric model of the Universe to explain celestial motions, drawing on the work of Greek and Babylonian astronomers. Both of these served for practical navigation until the 15th century.
  • pull, pulled
    The nautical term for rowing is pulling; thus a pulling boat is a rowed boat.
  • Members of the English Anglican Church who wanted to reform or purify the church, advocating strict religious discipline and simplification of the ceremonies of the Church of England. In America the term is used to refer to the immigrants led by John Winthrop who arrived in 1630.
  • A net gathered at the bottom like an inverted drawstring purse. It encircles a school of fish. A rope runs through rings along the bottom to draw it together. The fish are then pumped or dipped out of the purse. If the purse is small the net may be lifted to deck and the purse opened.